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Varieties from Thailand

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Variety from Thailand
Brown Aromatic, Jasmine Rice Seeds Heirloom Non-Gmo 1.9 - 1

Brown Aromatic, Jasmine...

Price €1.90
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Brown Aromatic, Jasmine Rice Seeds Heirloom Non-Gmo</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 20 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span>Jasmine rice (Thai: </span><span>ข้าวหอมมะลิ</span><span>, rtgs: Khao hom mali, Thai pronunciation: [kʰâːw hɔ̌ːm malíʔ]; Chinese: 泰国香米; Tàiguó xiāngmǐ) is a variety of fragrant rice (also known as aromatic rice). Its fragrance, reminiscent of pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) and popcorn, results from the rice plant's natural production of aromatic compounds, of which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline is the most salient. In typical packaging and storage, these aromatic compounds dissipate within a few months. This rapid loss of aromatic intensity leads many Southeast Asians and connoisseurs to prefer each year's freshly harvested "new crop" of jasmine rice.</span></p> <p><span>Jasmine rice is a variety of Oryza sativa. The name "jasmine" refers to the color of the rice, which is as white as the jasmine flower.</span></p> <p><span>Jasmine rice is grown primarily in Thailand (Thai hom mali or Thai fragrant rice), Cambodia (angkor kra'oup or Cambodian jasmine rice), Laos, and southern Vietnam. It is moist and soft in texture when cooked, with a slightly sweet flavor. The grains cling and are somewhat sticky when cooked, though less sticky than glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa), as it has less amylopectin. It is about three times stickier than American long-grain rice.</span></p> <p><span>To harvest jasmine rice, the long stalks are cut and threshed. The rice can then be left in a hulled form called paddy rice, de-hulled to produce brown rice, or milled to remove the germ and some or all of the bran, producing white rice.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Types</span></strong></p> <p><span>Thai jasmine rice and Cambodian rice share many of the same characteristics and grow mainly in neighboring geographic areas on opposite sides of the northeastern Thai-Cambodian border. Cambodian jasmine rice is cultivated in Cambodia and processed as white (milled and polished) and brown rice. Distinct Cambodian jasmine rice varieties include these three, phka rumduol, phka romeat, and phka rumdeng. Recent DNA fingerprint analysis, carried out with 18 markers, shows that all three varieties possess 18 known fragrance alleles. Two varietals (phka rumduol and phka rumdeng) are distinctly Cambodian with 17 markers in identical positions, with Thai jasmine rice and one fragrance marker each in a different position. The analysis of Cambodian phka romeat shows all 18 markers in identical positions with the trademarked Thai jasmine rice Thai hom mali.[8]</span></p> <p><span>Jasmine rice, though grown in Laos and southern Vietnam, is not the predominant rice variety. Glutinous rice is grown in Laos, and regular Oryza sativa predominates in Vietnam.</span></p> <p><span>Thai jasmine rice from Thailand has a slender shape and a jasmine scent.[9]:12-13 The two types of Thai jasmine rice are white and brown.[10] The vast majority of jasmine rice exported overseas to North America and Europe is Thai jasmine rice, with a small minority from Vietnam. In Thailand it is thought that only Surin, Buriram, and Sisaket Provinces can produce high quality hom mali.</span></p> <p><strong><span>White jasmine rice</span></strong></p> <p><span>White jasmine rice is white, has a jasmine flower aroma and, when cooked, a slightly sticky texture.[9]:8-13 The aroma is caused by the evaporation of 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline.[9]:8-13</span></p> <p><strong><span>Brown jasmine rice</span></strong></p> <p><span>Brown jasmine rice retains the light tan outer layer on the rice grain. It has greater health benefits than white jasmine rice because it still has the bran. Brown jasmine rice has a flavor like oats and contains gamma oryzanol which can decrease cholesterol in blood vessels.[14] Brown jasmine rice has vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin B, and beta-carotene and it contains antioxidants which support the working of nervous system.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Glycemic index</span></strong></p> <p><span>Jasmine rice has a glycemic index of 68-80.[16] Foods with a glycemic index of 70 or lower are preferred in the diet of diabetics due to their slower absorption which prevents large spikes in blood sugar after consumption. Not all rice has a high glycemic index. Basmati rice, for example, has a relatively low glycemic index of 59. However, it is uncommon for rice to be eaten alone. It is usually eaten with other foods that can reduce its glycemic index by 20-40 percent.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Culinary uses</span></strong></p> <p><span>Steamed jasmine rice is ideal for eating with stir fries, with grilled, fried, or braised food items, and in soups (when cooked slightly drier by adding a little less water during cooking). It often doesn't fare well when used for fried rice, as it is too soft and soggy when still warm. More experienced cooks will use rice that has been cooled down first for making fried rice.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Recognition</span></strong></p> <p><span>At the 2017 World Rice Conference held in Macau, Thailand's hom mali 105 (jasmine) rice was declared the world's best rice, beating 21 competitors.[19] Thailand had entered three rice varieties in the competition. This marks the fifth time in the last nine years that Thai jasmine rice has won the honour.[20] The judges of the competition were chefs from Macau restaurants. Criteria were taste and the shape of the rice grains. Cambodia finished second, Vietnam third.</span></p> </body> </html>
P 411 BJ
Brown Aromatic, Jasmine Rice Seeds Heirloom Non-Gmo 1.9 - 1
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Variety from Thailand
Water spinach seeds...

Water spinach seeds...

Price €1.35
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Water spinach seeds (Ipomoea aquatica)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><i><b>Ipomoea aquatica</b></i><span> is a semi-</span>aquatic<span>, </span>tropical<span> plant grown as a </span>vegetable<span> for its tender shoots and it is not known where it originated. This plant is known in English as </span><b>water spinach</b><span>, </span><b>river spinach</b><span>, </span><b>water morning glory</b><span>, </span><b>water convolvulus</b><span>, or by the more ambiguous names </span><b>Chinese spinach</b><span>, </span><b>Chinese watercress</b><span>, </span><b>Chinese convolvulus</b><span> or </span><b>swamp cabbage</b><span>, or </span><i><b>kangkong</b></i><span> in </span>Southeast Asia<span> and </span><i><b>ong choy</b></i><span> in Cantonese.</span></p> <p>Water spinach will produce masses of tender shoots and leaves, rich in vitamins and minerals, and have a pleasant sweet flavor and a slightly slippery texture that contrasts well with the crispness of the stems when cooked. The leaves and shoots can be used raw in salads, steamed or stir-fried like spinach.</p> <p>Animal feed<br />Water spinach is fed to livestock as green fodder with high nutritive value—especially the leaves, for they are a good source of carotene. It is fed to cattle, pigs, fish, ducks, and chicken. Moreover, it is mentioned that in limited quantities, I. Aquatica can have a somewhat laxative effect.</p> <p>Medicinal use<br />I. Aquatica is used in the traditional medicine of Southeast Asia and in the traditional medicine of some countries in Africa. In southeast Asian medicine it is used against piles, and nosebleeds, as an anthelmintic, and to treat high blood pressure. In Ayurveda, leaf extracts are used against jaundice and nervous debility.[51] In indigenous medicine in Sri Lanka, water spinach is supposed to have insulin-like properties. Water extracts of I. Aquatica showed a blood sugar-lowering effect in Wistar rats. An aqueous juice of 100g plant material was given 30 minutes before eating glucose to diabetes 2 patients. After 2 hours it could be observed that blood glucose peak level was reduced by around 30%.</p> <p>Also antioxidant bioactive compounds and anti-microbial substances could be detected in water spinach.[53] Furthermore, plant extracts of water spinach inhibit cancer cell growth of Vero, Hep-2 and A-549 cells, though have moderate anti-cancer activity.</p> <p>Sowing and planting:</p> <p>Seed can be soaked for 24 hours before sowing to encourage germination. The soil temperature requirement for germination is 20 °C.</p> <p>When rainfall is low, frequent heavy irrigation is necessary for high-quality plants.</p> <p>To produce strong seedlings, seed should be sown 5-10 mm deep in trays with a potting mix deep enough to allow the plants to develop a good root system. Transplanting should take place when plants are 10-15 cm high, with four true leaves. The highest yields are obtained by spacing plants at 15x15cm. They can also be grown in rows about 30 cm apart with plants at 20 cm spacing within rows.</p> </body> </html>
P 472 IA
Water spinach seeds (Ipomoea aquatica)
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Variety from Thailand
Black Rice Royal Pearl Seeds

Black Rice Royal Pearl Seeds

Price €1.95
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Black Rice Royal Pearl Seeds</strong></h2> <h2 class=""><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 50 (1g) seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span>Royal Pearl Rice is an aromatic rice with a nutty aroma. The delectable taste and smell of this rice is perfect for all types of dishes especially Asian and Thai cuisine.</span></p> <p><span>Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice. Oryza sativa is a grass with a genome consisting of 430Mb across 12 chromosomes. It is renowned for being easy to genetically modify, and is a model organism for cereal biology.</span></p> <p><span>Debates on the origins of the domesticated rice are numerous. In 2011, genetic evidence showed that all forms of Asian rice, both indica and japonica, sprang from a single domestication that occurred 8,200–13,500 years ago in China of the wild rice Oryza rufipogon.[5] A 2012 study, through a map of rice genome variation, indicated that the domestication of rice occurred in the Pearl River valley region of China. From East Asia, rice was spread to South and Southeast Asia.[6] Before this research, the commonly accepted view, based on archaeological evidence, is that rice was first domesticated in the region of the Yangtze River valley in China.</span></p> <p><span>The precise date of the first domestication is unknown, but depending on the molecular clock estimate, the date is estimated to be 8,200 to 13,500 years ago. This is consistent with known archaeological data on the subject.</span></p> <p><span>An older theory, based on one chloroplast and two nuclear gene regions, Londo et al. (2006) had proposed that O. sativa rice was domesticated at least twice—indica in eastern India, Myanmar, and Thailand; and japonica in southern China and Vietnam—though they concede that archaeological and genetic evidence exist for a single domestication of rice in the lowlands of China.</span></p> <p><span>Because the functional allele for nonshattering, the critical indicator of domestication in grains, as well as five other single-nucleotide polymorphisms, is identical in both indica and japonica, Vaughan et al. (2008) determined a single domestication event for O. sativa happened in the region of the Yangtze River valley.</span></p> <p><span>In 2003, Korean archaeologists alleged they discovered burnt grains of domesticated rice in Soro-ri, Korea, which dated to 13,000 BC. These antedate the oldest grains in China, which were dated to 10,000 BC, and potentially challenge the mainstream explanation that domesticated rice originated in China. The findings were received by academia with strong skepticism.</span></p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
VE 108 BR (1g)
Black Rice Royal Pearl Seeds
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Cassava, Yuca Seeds...

Cassava, Yuca Seeds...

Price €4.95
,
5/ 5
<h2 class=""><strong>Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira, Mandioca, Aipim Seeds (Manihot esculenta)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;" class=""><strong>Price for Package of 3 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><i><b>Manihot esculenta</b></i>,<span>&nbsp;</span>commonly called<span>&nbsp;</span><b>cassava</b><span>&nbsp;</span>(<span class="nowrap"><span class="IPA nopopups noexcerpt">/<span><span title="'k' in 'kind'">k</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span><span title="/ˈ/: primary stress follows">ˈ</span><span title="'s' in 'sigh'">s</span><span title="/ɑː/: 'a' in 'father'">ɑː</span><span title="'v' in 'vie'">v</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span></span>/</span></span>),<span>&nbsp;</span><b>manioc</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>yuca</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>macaxeira</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>mandioca,</b><span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span><b>aipim</b>, is a woody<span>&nbsp;</span>shrub<span>&nbsp;</span>native to South America of the<span>&nbsp;</span>spurge<span>&nbsp;</span>family,<span>&nbsp;</span>Euphorbiaceae. Although a perennial plant, cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual<span>&nbsp;</span>crop<span>&nbsp;</span>in<span>&nbsp;</span>tropical<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>subtropical<span>&nbsp;</span>regions for its edible<span>&nbsp;</span>starchy<span>&nbsp;</span>tuberous root, a major source of<span>&nbsp;</span>carbohydrates. Though it is often called<span>&nbsp;</span><i><b>yuca</b></i><span>&nbsp;</span>in Latin American Spanish and in the United States, it is not related to<span>&nbsp;</span>yucca, a shrub in the family<span>&nbsp;</span>Asparagaceae. Cassava is predominantly consumed in boiled form, but substantial quantities are used to extract cassava starch, called<span>&nbsp;</span>tapioca, which is used for food, animal feed, and industrial purposes. The Brazilian Farinha, and the related<span>&nbsp;</span><i>garri</i><span>&nbsp;</span>of West Africa, is an edible coarse flour obtained by grating cassava roots, pressing moisture off the obtained grated pulp, and finally drying it (and roasting in the case of Farinha).</p> <p>Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after<span>&nbsp;</span>rice<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>maize.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference">[3]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference">[4]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava is a major<span>&nbsp;</span>staple food<span>&nbsp;</span>in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference">[5]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of cassava starch.</p> <p>Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain<span>&nbsp;</span>antinutritional<span>&nbsp;</span>factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-0" class="reference">[6]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual<span>&nbsp;</span>cyanide<span>&nbsp;</span>to cause acute<span>&nbsp;</span>cyanide intoxication,<sup id="cite_ref-promedmail-4799579_7-0" class="reference">[7]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference">[8]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>goiters, and even<span>&nbsp;</span>ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security<span>&nbsp;</span>crop") in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.<sup id="cite_ref-promedmail-4799579_7-1" class="reference">[7]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-1" class="reference">[6]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, animals, and thieves.<sup id="cite_ref-leisa_9-0" class="reference"></sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Description">Description</span></h2> <p>The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1&nbsp;mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Commercial<span>&nbsp;</span>cultivars<span>&nbsp;</span>can be 5 to 10&nbsp;cm (2.0 to 3.9&nbsp;in) in diameter at the top, and around 15 to 30&nbsp;cm (5.9 to 11.8&nbsp;in) long. A woody vascular bundle runs along the root's<span>&nbsp;</span>axis. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish. Cassava roots are very rich in<span>&nbsp;</span>starch<span>&nbsp;</span>and contain small amounts of calcium (16&nbsp;mg/100 g), phosphorus (27&nbsp;mg/100 g), and vitamin C (20.6&nbsp;mg/100 g).<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference">[10]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>However, they are poor in<span>&nbsp;</span>protein<span>&nbsp;</span>and other<span>&nbsp;</span>nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein (rich in lysine), but deficient in the<span>&nbsp;</span>amino acid<span>&nbsp;</span>methionine<span>&nbsp;</span>and possibly<span>&nbsp;</span>tryptophan.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference">[11]</sup></p> <div class="thumb tmulti tleft"> <div class="thumbinner"> <div class="trow"> <div class="theader">Details of cassava plants</div> </div> <div class="trow"> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Manihot_esculenta_dsc07325.jpg/135px-Manihot_esculenta_dsc07325.jpg" width="135" height="101"></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Unprocessed roots</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Cassava1_%283945716612%29.jpg/152px-Cassava1_%283945716612%29.jpg" width="152" height="101"></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Leaf</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Cassava2_%283945624614%29.jpg/152px-Cassava2_%283945624614%29.jpg" width="152" height="101"></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Leaf detail</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cassava_buds_%284733912948%29.jpg/67px-Cassava_buds_%284733912948%29.jpg" width="67" height="101"></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Picked buds</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Manihot_esculenta_MHNT.BOT.2004.0.508.jpg/146px-Manihot_esculenta_MHNT.BOT.2004.0.508.jpg" width="146" height="101"></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Seeds</div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Albert_Eckhout_-_Mandioca.jpg/220px-Albert_Eckhout_-_Mandioca.jpg" width="220" height="221" class="thumbimage"> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> 17th c. painting by<span>&nbsp;</span>Albert Eckhout<span>&nbsp;</span>in<span>&nbsp;</span>Dutch Brazil</div> </div> </div> <p>Wild populations of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>M. esculenta</i><span>&nbsp;</span>subspecies<span>&nbsp;</span><i>flabellifolia</i>, shown to be the progenitor of domesticated cassava, are centered in west-central Brazil, where it was likely first domesticated no more than 10,000 years<span>&nbsp;</span>BP.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference">[12]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Forms of the modern domesticated species can also be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc (cassava) pollen appears in the<span>&nbsp;</span>Gulf of Mexico<span>&nbsp;</span>lowlands, at the<span>&nbsp;</span>San Andrés<span>&nbsp;</span>archaeological site.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference">[13]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old<span>&nbsp;</span>Maya<span>&nbsp;</span>site,<span>&nbsp;</span>Joya de Cerén, in<span>&nbsp;</span>El Salvador.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference">[14]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>With its high food potential, it had become a<span>&nbsp;</span>staple food<span>&nbsp;</span>of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica, and the Caribbean by the time of European contact in 1492. Cassava was a staple food of<span>&nbsp;</span>pre-Columbian<span>&nbsp;</span>peoples in the Americas and is often portrayed in<span>&nbsp;</span>indigenous art. The<span>&nbsp;</span>Moche<span>&nbsp;</span>people often depicted yuca in their ceramics.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference">[15]</sup></p> <p>Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial, dangerous, and not nutritious. They much preferred foods from Spain, specifically wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, and meat, and considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference">[16]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The cultivation and consumption of cassava was nonetheless continued in both Portuguese and Spanish America. Mass production of cassava bread became the first Cuban industry established by the Spanish,<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference">[17]</sup>Ships departing to Europe from Cuban ports such as<span>&nbsp;</span>Havana,<span>&nbsp;</span>Santiago,<span>&nbsp;</span>Bayamo, and<span>&nbsp;</span>Baracoa<span>&nbsp;</span>carried goods to Spain, but sailors needed to be provisioned for the voyage. The Spanish also needed to replenish their boats with dried meat, water, fruit, and large amounts of cassava bread.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference">[18]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Sailors complained that it caused them digestive problems.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference">[19]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Tropical Cuban weather was not suitable for wheat planting and cassava would not go stale as quickly as regular bread.</p> <p>Cassava was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century. Around the same period, it was also introduced to Asia through<span>&nbsp;</span>Columbian Exchange<span>&nbsp;</span>by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Malacca, Eastern Indonesia, Timor and the Philippines.<span>&nbsp;</span>Maize<span>&nbsp;</span>and cassava are now important staple foods, replacing native African crops in places such as Tanzania.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference">[20]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava has also become an important staple in Asia, extensively cultivated in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference">[21]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava is sometimes described as the "bread of the tropics"<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference">[22]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>but should not be confused with the tropical and equatorial<span>&nbsp;</span>bread tree<span>&nbsp;</span><i>(Encephalartos)</i>, the<span>&nbsp;</span>breadfruit<span>&nbsp;</span><i>(Artocarpus altilis)</i><span>&nbsp;</span>or the<span>&nbsp;</span>African breadfruit<span>&nbsp;</span><i>(Treculia africana)</i>.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Production">Production</span></h2> <p>In 2016, global production of cassava root was 277 million<span>&nbsp;</span>tonnes, with<span>&nbsp;</span>Nigeria<span>&nbsp;</span>as the world's largest producer having 21% of the world total (table). Other major growers were<span>&nbsp;</span>Thailand,<span>&nbsp;</span>Brazil, and<span>&nbsp;</span>Indonesia.<sup id="cite_ref-faostat16_23-0" class="reference">[23]</sup></p> <table class="wikitable"> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Cassava production – 2016</th> </tr> <tr> <th>Country</th> <th><small>Production (millions of<span>&nbsp;</span>tonnes)</small></th> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/Flag_of_Nigeria.svg/23px-Flag_of_Nigeria.svg.png" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder">&nbsp;</span>Nigeria</center></td> <td><center>57.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/23px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder">&nbsp;</span>Thailand</center></td> <td><center>31.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder">&nbsp;</span>Brazil</center></td> <td><center>21.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder">&nbsp;</span>Indonesia</center></td> <td><center>20.7</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg/20px-Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg.png" width="20" height="15" class="thumbborder">&nbsp;</span>Democratic Republic of the Congo</center></td> <td><center>14.7</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><b>World</b></center></td> <td><center><b>277.1</b></center></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><center><small>Source:<span>&nbsp;</span>FAOSTAT<span>&nbsp;</span>of the<span>&nbsp;</span>United Nations<sup id="cite_ref-faostat16_23-1" class="reference">[23]</sup></small></center></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be successfully grown on marginal soils, and gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. Cassava is well adapted within latitudes 30° north and south of the equator, at elevations between sea level and 2,000&nbsp;m (6,600&nbsp;ft) above sea level, in equatorial temperatures, with rainfalls from 50&nbsp;mm (2.0&nbsp;in) to 5&nbsp;m (16&nbsp;ft) annually, and to poor soils with a pH ranging from acidic to alkaline. These conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and South America.</p> <p>Cassava is a highly-productive crop when considering food calories produced per unit land area, per unit of time. Significantly higher than other staple crops, cassava can produce food calories at rates exceeding 250,000 kcal/hectare/day, as compared with 176,000 for rice, 110,000 for wheat and 200,000 for maize (corn).</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Economic_importance">Economic importance</span></h2> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also:<span>&nbsp;</span>Tapioca §&nbsp;Production</div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Manihot_esculenta_-_cross_section_2.jpg/220px-Manihot_esculenta_-_cross_section_2.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage"> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> A cassava tuber in cross-section</div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava,<span>&nbsp;</span>yams<span>&nbsp;</span>(<i>Dioscorea</i><span>&nbsp;</span>spp.), and<span>&nbsp;</span>sweet potatoes<span>&nbsp;</span>(<i>Ipomoea batatas</i>) are important sources of food in the tropics. The cassava plant gives the third-highest yield of<span>&nbsp;</span>carbohydrates<span>&nbsp;</span>per cultivated area among crop plants, after<span>&nbsp;</span>sugarcane<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>sugar beets.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference">[24]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava plays a particularly important role in agriculture in developing countries, especially in<span>&nbsp;</span>sub-Saharan Africa, because it does well on poor soils and with low rainfall, and because it is a perennial that can be harvested as required. Its wide harvesting window allows it to act as a famine reserve and is invaluable in managing labor schedules. It offers flexibility to resource-poor farmers because it serves as either a subsistence or a cash crop.<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference">[25]</sup></p> <p>Worldwide, 800 million people depend on cassava as their primary food staple.<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference">[26]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>No continent depends as much on root and tuber crops in feeding its population as does Africa. In the humid and sub-humid areas of tropical Africa, it is either a primary staple food or a secondary costaple. In<span>&nbsp;</span>Ghana, for example, cassava and yams occupy an important position in the agricultural economy and contribute about 46 percent of the agricultural gross domestic product. Cassava accounts for a daily caloric intake of 30 percent in<span>&nbsp;</span>Ghanaand is grown by nearly every farming family. The importance of cassava to many Africans is epitomised in the<span>&nbsp;</span>Ewe<span>&nbsp;</span>(a language spoken in Ghana,<span>&nbsp;</span>Togo<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Benin) name for the plant,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>agbeli</i>, meaning "there is life".</p> <p>In<span>&nbsp;</span>Tamil Nadu, India, there are many cassava processing factories alongside<span>&nbsp;</span>National Highway 68<span>&nbsp;</span>between<span>&nbsp;</span>Thalaivasal<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Attur. Cassava is widely cultivated and eaten as a staple food in<span>&nbsp;</span>Andhra Pradesh<span>&nbsp;</span>and in<span>&nbsp;</span>Kerala. In<span>&nbsp;</span>Assam<span>&nbsp;</span>it is an important source of carbohydrates especially for natives of hilly areas.</p> <p>In the subtropical region of southern China, cassava is the fifth-largest crop in term of production, after<span>&nbsp;</span>rice,<span>&nbsp;</span>sweet potato,<span>&nbsp;</span>sugar cane, and<span>&nbsp;</span>maize. China is also the largest export market for cassava produced in Vietnam and Thailand. Over 60 percent of cassava production in China is concentrated in a single province,<span>&nbsp;</span>Guangxi, averaging over seven million tonnes annually.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Uses">Uses</span></h2> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also:<span>&nbsp;</span>Tapioca §&nbsp;Uses</div> <table class="box-More_citations_needed_section plainlinks metadata ambox ambox-content ambox-Refimprove"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="mbox-image"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" width="50" height="39"></div> </td> <td class="mbox-text"> <div class="mbox-text-span">This section<span>&nbsp;</span><b>needs additional citations for<span>&nbsp;</span>verification</b>.<span class="hide-when-compact"><span>&nbsp;</span>Please help<span>&nbsp;</span>improve this article<span>&nbsp;</span>by<span>&nbsp;</span>adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.<br><small><span class="plainlinks"><i>Find sources:</i>&nbsp;"Cassava"&nbsp;–&nbsp;news&nbsp;<b>·</b><span>&nbsp;</span>newspapers&nbsp;<b>·</b><span>&nbsp;</span>books&nbsp;<b>·</b><span>&nbsp;</span>scholar&nbsp;<b>·</b><span>&nbsp;</span>JSTOR</span></small></span><span>&nbsp;</span><small class="date-container"><i>(<span class="date">August 2017</span>)</i></small><small class="hide-when-compact"><i><span>&nbsp;</span>(Learn how and when to remove this template message)</i></small></div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Cambodia16_lo_%284039995158%29.jpg/220px-Cambodia16_lo_%284039995158%29.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage"> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Processing cassava starch into cassava noodles,<span>&nbsp;</span>Kampong Cham</div> </div> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Alcoholic_beverages">Alcoholic beverages</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span>&nbsp;</span>Alcoholic beverage §&nbsp;Beverages by type</div> <p>Alcoholic beverages<span>&nbsp;</span>made from cassava include<span>&nbsp;</span>cauim<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>tiquira<span>&nbsp;</span>(Brazil),<span>&nbsp;</span>kasiri<span>&nbsp;</span>(Guyana, Suriname), impala (Mozambique), masato (Peruvian<span>&nbsp;</span>Amazonia chicha),<span>&nbsp;</span>parakari<span>&nbsp;</span>or kari (Guyana),<span>&nbsp;</span>nihamanchi<span>&nbsp;</span>(South America) also known as nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru), ö döi (chicha de yuca, Ngäbe-Bugle, Panama), sakurá (Brazil, Suriname), and tarul ko jaarh (Darjeeling, Sikkim, India).</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Culinary">Culinary</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava-based dishes</div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cassava_heavy_cake.jpg/220px-Cassava_heavy_cake.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage"> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cassava heavy cake</div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava-based dishes<span>&nbsp;</span>are widely consumed wherever the plant is cultivated; some have regional, national, or ethnic importance.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference">[27]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava must be cooked properly to detoxify it before it is eaten.</p> <p>Cassava can be cooked in many ways. The root of the sweet variety has a delicate flavor and can replace potatoes. It is used in<span>&nbsp;</span>cholent<span>&nbsp;</span>in some households.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2018)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It can be made into a flour that is used in breads, cakes and cookies. In Brazil, detoxified manioc is ground and cooked to a dry, often hard or crunchy meal known as<span>&nbsp;</span><i>farofa</i><span>&nbsp;</span>used as a condiment, toasted in butter, or eaten alone as a side dish.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Nutritional_profile">Nutritional profile</span></h3> <table class="infobox nowrap"><caption>Cassava, raw</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Nutritional value per 100&nbsp;g (3.5&nbsp;oz)</th> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Energy</th> <td>160&nbsp;kcal (670&nbsp;kJ)</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Carbohydrates</b></div> </th> <td> <div>38.1&nbsp;g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sugars</th> <td>1.7&nbsp;g</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Dietary fiber</th> <td>1.8&nbsp;g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Fat</b></div> </th> <td> <div>0.3&nbsp;g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Protein</b></div> </th> <td> <div>1.4&nbsp;g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Vitamins</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Thiamine<span>&nbsp;</span><span>(B1)</span></th> <td> <div>8%</div> 0.087 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Riboflavin<span>&nbsp;</span><span>(B2)</span></th> <td> <div>4%</div> 0.048 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Niacin<span>&nbsp;</span><span>(B3)</span></th> <td> <div>6%</div> 0.854 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin B<span>6</span></th> <td> <div>7%</div> 0.088 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Folate<span>&nbsp;</span><span>(B9)</span></th> <td> <div>7%</div> 27 μg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin C</th> <td> <div>25%</div> 20.6 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Minerals</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Calcium</th> <td> <div>2%</div> 16 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Iron</th> <td> <div>2%</div> 0.27 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Magnesium</th> <td> <div>6%</div> 21 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Phosphorus</th> <td> <div>4%</div> 27 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Potassium</th> <td> <div>6%</div> 271 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sodium</th> <td> <div>1%</div> 14 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Zinc</th> <td> <div>4%</div> 0.34 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Other constituents</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Water</th> <td>60 g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><hr> <div class="wrap">Full Link to USDA Database entry</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"> <div class="plainlist"> <ul> <li>Units</li> <li>μg =<span>&nbsp;</span>micrograms&nbsp;• mg =<span>&nbsp;</span>milligrams</li> <li>IU =<span>&nbsp;</span>International units</li> </ul> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="wrap"><sup>†</sup>Percentages are roughly approximated using<span>&nbsp;</span>US&nbsp;recommendations<span>&nbsp;</span>for adults.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Raw cassava is 60% water, 38%<span>&nbsp;</span>carbohydrates, 1%<span>&nbsp;</span>protein, and has negligible<span>&nbsp;</span>fat<span>&nbsp;</span>(table).<sup id="cite_ref-fao_28-0" class="reference">[28]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>In a 100 gram amount, raw cassava provides 160<span>&nbsp;</span>calories<span>&nbsp;</span>and contains 25% of the<span>&nbsp;</span>Daily Value<span>&nbsp;</span>(DV) for<span>&nbsp;</span>vitamin C, but otherwise has no<span>&nbsp;</span>micronutrients<span>&nbsp;</span>in significant content (no values above 10% DV; table). Cooked cassava starch has a<span>&nbsp;</span>digestibility<span>&nbsp;</span>of over 75%.<sup id="cite_ref-fao_28-1" class="reference">[28]</sup></p> <p>Cassava, like other foods, also has<span>&nbsp;</span>antinutritional<span>&nbsp;</span>and toxic factors. Of particular concern are the<span>&nbsp;</span>cyanogenic glucosides<span>&nbsp;</span>of cassava (linamarin<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>lotaustralin). On hydrolysis, these release<span>&nbsp;</span>hydrocyanic acid (HCN).<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2017)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The presence of cyanide in cassava is of concern for human and for animal consumption. The concentration of these antinutritional and unsafe glycosides varies considerably between varieties and also with climatic and cultural conditions. Selection of cassava species to be grown, therefore, is quite important. Once harvested, bitter cassava must be treated and prepared properly prior to human or animal consumption, while sweet cassava can be used after simply boiling.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Comparison_with_other_major_staple_foods">Comparison with other major staple foods</span></h3> <p>A<span>&nbsp;</span>comparative table<span>&nbsp;</span>shows that<span>&nbsp;</span>cassava is a good energy source. In its prepared forms in which its toxic or unpleasant components have been reduced to acceptable levels, it contains an extremely high proportion of starch. Compared to most staples however, cassava accordingly is a poorer dietary source of protein and most other essential nutrients. Though an important staple, its main value is as a component of a balanced diet.</p> <p>Comparisons between the nutrient content of cassava and other major<span>&nbsp;</span>staple foods<span>&nbsp;</span>when raw,<span>&nbsp;</span>as shown in the table, must be interpreted with caution because most staples are not edible in such forms and many are indigestible, even dangerously poisonous or otherwise harmful.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2017)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>For consumption, each must be prepared and cooked as appropriate. Suitably cooked or otherwise prepared, the nutritional and antinutritional contents of each of these staples is widely different from that of raw form and depends on the methods of preparation such as soaking, fermentation, sprouting, boiling, or baking.<strong><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassava" target="_blank" title="Source WIKIPEDIA Cassava" rel="noreferrer noopener"></a></strong></p> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
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