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Physic nut, Barbados nut...

Physic nut, Barbados nut...

Price €3.75
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<h2><strong>Physic nut, Barbados nut Seeds (Jatropha curcas)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0a0a;"><strong>Price for a Package of 3 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i><b>Jatropha curcas</b></i><span>&nbsp;</span>is a species of<span>&nbsp;</span>flowering plant<span>&nbsp;</span>in the<span>&nbsp;</span>spurge<span>&nbsp;</span>family,<span>&nbsp;</span>Euphorbiaceae, that is native to the<span>&nbsp;</span>American tropics, most likely<span>&nbsp;</span>Mexico<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Central America.<sup id="cite_ref-Janick_2-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[2]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It is originally native to the tropical areas of the Americas from Mexico to Argentina, and has been spread throughout the world in tropical and<span>&nbsp;</span>subtropical<span>&nbsp;</span>regions<span>&nbsp;</span>around the world, becoming<span>&nbsp;</span>naturalized or invasive<span>&nbsp;</span>in many areas.<sup id="cite_ref-cabi_3-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[3]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The<span>&nbsp;</span>specific epithet,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>"curcas"</i>, was first used by<span>&nbsp;</span>Portuguese<span>&nbsp;</span>doctor<span>&nbsp;</span>Garcia de Orta<span>&nbsp;</span>more than 400 years ago.<sup id="cite_ref-Agroforest_4-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[4]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Common names in English include<span>&nbsp;</span><b>physic nut</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>Barbados nut</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>poison nut</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>bubble bush</b><span>&nbsp;</span>or<span>&nbsp;</span><b>purging nut</b>.<sup id="cite_ref-cabi_3-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[3]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>In parts of Africa and areas in Asia such as India it is often known as "castor oil plant" or "hedge castor oil plant",<sup id="cite_ref-cabi_3-2" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[3]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>but it is not the same as the usual<span>&nbsp;</span>castor oil plant,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Ricinus communis</i><span>&nbsp;</span>(they are in the same family but different subfamilies).</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>J. curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is a semi-evergreen<span>&nbsp;</span>shrub<span>&nbsp;</span>or small<span>&nbsp;</span>tree, reaching a height of 6&nbsp;m (20&nbsp;ft) or more.<sup id="cite_ref-Janick_2-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[2]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It is resistant to a high degree of<span>&nbsp;</span>aridity, allowing it to grow in<span>&nbsp;</span>deserts.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[5]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[6]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It contains<span>&nbsp;</span>phorbol esters, which are considered toxic.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[7]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>However, edible (non-toxic) provenances native to Mexico also exist, known by the local population as piñón manso, xuta, chuta, aishte, among others.<sup id="cite_ref-Martínez-Herrera,_J._2010_8-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[8]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-valdez2013_9-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[9]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span><i>J. curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>also contains compounds such as<span>&nbsp;</span>trypsin inhibitors,<span>&nbsp;</span>phytate,<span>&nbsp;</span>saponins<span>&nbsp;</span>and a type of<span>&nbsp;</span>lectin<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[10]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[11]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>known as curcin.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[12]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The<span>&nbsp;</span>seeds<span>&nbsp;</span>contain 27–40%<span>&nbsp;</span>oil<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[13]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>(average: 34.4%<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[14]</sup>) that can be processed to produce a high-quality<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel<span>&nbsp;</span>fuel, usable in a standard<span>&nbsp;</span>diesel engine. Edible (non-toxic) varieties can be used for<span>&nbsp;</span>animal feed<span>&nbsp;</span>and food.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Botanical_features">Botanical features</span></h2> <ul> <li>Leaves: The leaves have significant variability in their morphology. In general, the leaves are green to pale green, alternate to subopposite, and three- to five-lobed with a<span>&nbsp;</span>spiral phyllotaxis.<sup id="cite_ref-Nahar_16-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[16]</sup></li> <li>Flowers: male and female flowers are produced on the same<span>&nbsp;</span>inflorescence, averaging 20 male flowers to each female flower,<sup id="cite_ref-Pesquisa_17-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[17]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>or 10 male flowers to each female flower.<sup id="cite_ref-Jatropha_journal_18-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[18]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The inflorescence can be formed in the<span>&nbsp;</span>leaf axil. Plants occasionally present hermaphroditic flowers.<sup id="cite_ref-Nahar_16-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[16]</sup></li> <li>Fruits&nbsp;: fruits are produced in winter, or there may be several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high. Most fruit production is concentrated from midsummer to late fall with variations in production peaks where some plants have two or three harvests and some produce continuously through the season.<sup id="cite_ref-Nahar_16-2" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[16]</sup></li> <li>Seeds: the seeds are mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow. The seeds contain around 20% saturated fatty acids and 80% unsaturated fatty acids, and they yield 25–40% oil by weight. In addition, the seeds contain other chemical compounds, such as<span>&nbsp;</span>saccharose,<span>&nbsp;</span>raffinose,<span>&nbsp;</span>stachyose,<span>&nbsp;</span>glucose,<span>&nbsp;</span>fructose,<span>&nbsp;</span>galactose, and<span>&nbsp;</span>protein. The oil is largely made up of oleic and<span>&nbsp;</span>linoleic<span>&nbsp;</span>acids. Furthermore, the plant also contains curcasin, arachidic,<span>&nbsp;</span>myristic,<span>&nbsp;</span>palmitic, and<span>&nbsp;</span>stearic<span>&nbsp;</span>acids and<span>&nbsp;</span>curcin.<sup id="cite_ref-Nahar_16-3" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[16]</sup></li> <li>Genome: the whole genome was sequenced by<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Kazusa DNA Research Institute</i>, Chiba Japan in October 2010.</li> </ul> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Cultivation">Cultivation</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Cultivation is uncomplicated.<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>grows in<span>&nbsp;</span>tropical<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>subtropical<span>&nbsp;</span>regions.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[20]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The plant can grow in<span>&nbsp;</span>wastelands<span>&nbsp;</span>and grows on almost any terrain, even on<span>&nbsp;</span>gravelly,<span>&nbsp;</span>sandy<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>saline<span>&nbsp;</span>soils. It can thrive in poor and stony soils, although new research suggests that the plant's ability to adapt to these poor soils is not as extensive as had been previously stated. Complete<span>&nbsp;</span>germination<span>&nbsp;</span>is achieved within 9 days. Adding<span>&nbsp;</span>manure<span>&nbsp;</span>during the germination has negative effects during that phase, but is favorable if applied after germination is achieved. It can be propagated by cuttings, which yields faster results than multiplication by seeds.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The flowers only develop terminally (at the end of a stem), so a good ramification (plants presenting many branches) produces the greatest amount of fruits. The plants are<span>&nbsp;</span>self-compatible.<sup id="cite_ref-Pesquisa_17-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[17]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Another productivity factor is the ratio between female and male flowers within an inflorescence, more female flowers mean more fruits.<sup id="cite_ref-Jatropha_journal_18-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[18]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>thrives on a mere 250&nbsp;mm (10&nbsp;in) of rain a year, and only during its first two years does it need to be watered in the closing days of the dry season.<span>&nbsp;</span>Ploughing<span>&nbsp;</span>and planting are not needed regularly, as this shrub has a life expectancy of approximately forty years. The use of<span>&nbsp;</span>pesticides<span>&nbsp;</span>is not necessary, due to the pesticidal and<span>&nbsp;</span>fungicidal<span>&nbsp;</span>properties of the plant. It is used in rural Bengal for<span>&nbsp;</span>dhobi itch<span>&nbsp;</span>(a common fungal infection of the skin).</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">While<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>starts yielding from 9–12 months time, the best yields are obtained only after 2–3 years time. The seed production is around 3.5 tons per hectare (seed production ranges from about 0.4 t/ha in the first year to over 5 t/ha after 3 years). If planted in<span>&nbsp;</span>hedges, the reported productivity of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is from 0.8 to 1.0&nbsp;kg of seed per meter of live fence.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (April 2015)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Propagation">Propagation</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>can easily be propagated by both<span>&nbsp;</span>seed<span>&nbsp;</span>or cuttings.<sup id="cite_ref-Duke_21-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;"></sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Some people recommend propagation by seed for establishment of long-lived plantations.<sup id="cite_ref-Duong_22-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[22]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>When jatropha plants develop from cuttings, they produce many branches but yield fewer seeds and do not have enough time to develop their taproot, which makes them sensitive to wind erosion.<sup id="cite_ref-feed_23-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[23]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The seeds exhibit orthodox storage behaviour and under normal treatment and storage will maintain viability at high percentages for eight months to a year.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[24]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[25]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[26]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Duong_22-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[22]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[27]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Propagation through seed (sexual propagation) leads to a lot of genetic variability in terms of growth, biomass, seed yield and oil content. Clonal techniques can help in overcoming these problems. Vegetative propagation has been achieved by<span>&nbsp;</span>stem cuttings,<span>&nbsp;</span>grafting,<span>&nbsp;</span>budding<span>&nbsp;</span>as well as by<span>&nbsp;</span>air layering<span>&nbsp;</span>techniques. Cuttings should be taken preferably from juvenile plants and treated with 200 micro gram per litre of<span>&nbsp;</span>IBA<span>&nbsp;</span>(rooting hormone) to ensure the highest level of rooting in stem cuttings.<sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[28]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cuttings strike root easily stuck in the ground without use of hormones.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Processing">Processing</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Seed extraction and processing generally needs specialized facilities.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Oil content varies from 28% to 30% and 80% extraction, one<span>&nbsp;</span>hectare<span>&nbsp;</span>of plantation will give 400 to 600 litres of oil if the soil is average.<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[29]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The oily seeds are processed into<span>&nbsp;</span>oil, which may be used directly ("Straight Vegetable Oil") to fuel combustion engines or may be subjected to<span>&nbsp;</span>transesterification<span>&nbsp;</span>to produce<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2016)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Jatropha oil is not suitable for human consumption, as it induces strong<span>&nbsp;</span>vomiting<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>diarrhea.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2016)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Biofuel">Biofuel</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <div class="thumbinner" style="font-size: 13.16px;"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/13/Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg/220px-Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="322" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/13/Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg/330px-Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/13/Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg/440px-Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg 2x" data-file-width="684" data-file-height="1000"> <div class="thumbcaption" style="font-size: 12.3704px;"> <div class="magnify"></div> Jatropha plantation in the dry center/west of the<span>&nbsp;</span>Paraguay<span>&nbsp;</span>Chaco</div> </div> </div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">When jatropha seeds are crushed, the resulting jatropha oil can be processed to produce a high-quality<span>&nbsp;</span>biofuel<span>&nbsp;</span>or<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel<span>&nbsp;</span>that can be used in a standard diesel car or further processed into jet fuel, while the residue (press cake) can also be used as biomass feedstock to power electricity plants, used as fertilizer (it contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). The cake can also be used as feed in<span>&nbsp;</span>digesters<span>&nbsp;</span>and gasifiers to produce biogas.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[30]</sup></p> <div class="thumb tright" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <div class="thumbinner" style="font-size: 13.16px;"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg/220px-Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="309" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg/330px-Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg/440px-Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="1683"> <div class="thumbcaption" style="font-size: 12.3704px;"> <div class="magnify"></div> <i>"From planting to picking. Treat your jatropha plant as well as possible to make the yield as large as possible!"</i><span>&nbsp;</span>(A reference to the compulsory planting of jatropha in Indonesia for the production of oil as machinery lubricant and fuel for the Japanese WWII war effort.)</div> </div> </div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">There are several forms of biofuel, often manufactured using<span>&nbsp;</span>sedimentation,<span>&nbsp;</span>centrifugation, and<span>&nbsp;</span>filtration. The fats and oils are turned into esters while separating the<span>&nbsp;</span>glycerin. At the end of the process, the glycerin settles and the biofuel floats. The process through which the glycerin is separated from the biodiesel is known as<span>&nbsp;</span>transesterification. Glycerin is another by-product from Jatropha oil processing that can add value to the crop. Transesterification is a simple chemical reaction that neutralizes the free fatty acids present in any fatty substances in Jatropha. A chemical exchange takes place between the<span>&nbsp;</span>alkoxy<span>&nbsp;</span>groups of an ester compound by an alcohol. Usually,<span>&nbsp;</span>methanol<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>ethanol<span>&nbsp;</span>are used for the purpose. The reaction occurs by the presence of a<span>&nbsp;</span>catalyst, usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or caustic soda and potassium hydroxide (KOH), which forms fatty esters (e.g., methyl or ethyl esters), commonly known as<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel. It takes approximately 10% of methyl alcohol by weight of the fatty substance to start the transesterification process.<sup id="cite_ref-Nahar_16-4" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[16]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Estimates of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>seed yield vary widely, due to a lack of research data, the<span>&nbsp;</span>genetic<span>&nbsp;</span>diversity of the crop, the range of<span>&nbsp;</span>environments<span>&nbsp;</span>in which it is grown, and<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span class="nowrap">'</span>s perennial life cycle. Seed yields under cultivation can range from 1,500 to 2,000 kilograms per<span>&nbsp;</span>hectare, corresponding to extractable oil yields of 540 to 680 litres per hectare (58 to 73 gallons per acre).<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[31]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>In 2009<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Time</i><span>&nbsp;</span>magazine cited the potential for as much as 1,600 gallons of diesel fuel per acre per year.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[32]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The plant may yield more than four times as much fuel per<span>&nbsp;</span>hectare<span>&nbsp;</span>as<span>&nbsp;</span>soybean, and more than ten times that of<span>&nbsp;</span>maize<span>&nbsp;</span>(corn), but at the same time it requires five times as much water per unit of energy produced as does corn (see below). A hectare of jatropha has been claimed to produce 1,892 litres of fuel.<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[33]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>However, as it has not yet been domesticated or improved by plant breeders, yields are variable.<sup id="cite_ref-Fairless_34-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[34]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>can also be<span>&nbsp;</span>intercropped<span>&nbsp;</span>with other cash crops such as coffee, sugar, fruits and vegetables.<sup id="cite_ref-reuk_35-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[35]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In 2007<span>&nbsp;</span>Goldman Sachs<span>&nbsp;</span>cited<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>as one of the best candidates for future biodiesel production.<sup id="cite_ref-online.wsj.com_36-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[36]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>However, despite its abundance and use as an oil and<span>&nbsp;</span>reclamation<span>&nbsp;</span>plant, none of the<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>species has been properly<span>&nbsp;</span>domesticated<span>&nbsp;</span>and, as a result, its productivity is variable, and the long-term impact of its large-scale use on soil quality and the environment is unknown.<sup id="cite_ref-Fairless2_37-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[37]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In 2008 researchers at Daimler Chrysler Research explored the use of jatropha oil for automotive use, concluding that although jatropha oil as fuel "has not yet reached optimal quality, ... it already fulfills the EU norm for biodiesel quality".<span>&nbsp;</span>Archer Daniels Midland Company,<span>&nbsp;</span>Bayer CropScience<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Daimler AG<span>&nbsp;</span>have a joint project to develop jatropha as a biofuel.<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[38]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Three Mercedes cars powered by Jatropha diesel have already put some 30,000 kilometres behind them. The project is supported by<span>&nbsp;</span>DaimlerChrysler<span>&nbsp;</span>and by the German Association for Investment and Development (Deutschen Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft, DEG).</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Jet_fuel">Jet fuel</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Aviation fuels may be more widely replaced by biofuels such as jatropha oil than fuels for other forms of transportation. There are fewer planes than cars or trucks and far fewer jet fueling stations to convert than gas stations.<sup id="cite_ref-nytimes12-30_39-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[39]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>To fulfil the yearly demand for aviation fuel, based on demand in 2008 (fuel use has since grown), an area of farmland twice the size of France would need to be planted with jatropha, based on average yields of mature plantations on reasonably good, irrigated land.<sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[40]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">On December 30, 2008,<span>&nbsp;</span>Air New Zealand<span>&nbsp;</span>flew the first successful test flight from<span>&nbsp;</span>Auckland<span>&nbsp;</span>with a<span>&nbsp;</span>Boeing 747<span>&nbsp;</span>running one of its four<span>&nbsp;</span>Rolls-Royce<span>&nbsp;</span>engines on a 50:50 blend of jatropha oil and<span>&nbsp;</span>jet A-1 fuel.<sup id="cite_ref-nytimes12-30_39-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[39]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[41]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>In the same press release, Air New Zealand announced plans to use the new fuel for 10% of its needs by 2013. At the time of this test, jatropha oil was much cheaper than crude oil, costing an estimated $43 a barrel or about one-third of the June 4, 2008 closing price of $122.30 for a<span>&nbsp;</span>barrel<span>&nbsp;</span>of<span>&nbsp;</span>crude oil.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[42]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">On January 7, 2009 Continental Airlines successfully completed a test flight from Houston, Texas using a 50/50 mixture of algae/jatropha-oil-derived biofuel and Jet A in one of the two CFM56 engines of a Boeing 737-800 Next Generation jet. The two-hour test flight could mark another promising step for the airline industry to find cheaper and more<span>&nbsp;</span>environmentally friendly<span>&nbsp;</span>alternatives to<span>&nbsp;</span>fossil fuel.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">On April 1, 2011<span>&nbsp;</span>Interjet<span>&nbsp;</span>completed the first Mexican aviation biofuels test flight on an<span>&nbsp;</span>Airbus A320. The fuel was a 70:30 traditional jet fuel biojet blend produced from Jatropha oil provided by three Mexican producers, Global Energías Renovables (a wholly owned subsidiary of U.S.-based<span>&nbsp;</span>Global Clean Energy Holdings), Bencafser S.A. and Energy JH S.A. Honeywell's UOP processed the oil into Bio-SPK (Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene).<sup id="cite_ref-BiodeiselsMexico_43-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[43]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Global Energías Renovables operates the largest Jatropha farm in the Americas.<sup id="cite_ref-BiodeiselsMexico_43-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[43]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">On October 28, 2011<span>&nbsp;</span>Air China<span>&nbsp;</span>completed the first successful demonstration flight by a Chinese airline that used jatropha-based biofuel. The mixture was a 50:50 mix of conventional jet fuel blended with jatropha oil from China National Petroleum Corp. The 747-400 powered one of its four engines on the fuel mixture during the 1-hour flight around Beijing airport.<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[44]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">On August 27, 2018<span>&nbsp;</span>SpiceJet<span>&nbsp;</span>completed the first successful test flight by an Indian airline which used jatropha based biofuel. The ratio of conventional jet fuel to jatropha oil was 25:75.<sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[45]</sup></p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Carbon_dioxide_sequestration">Carbon dioxide sequestration</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">According to a 2013 study published by the<span>&nbsp;</span>European Geosciences Union,<sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[46]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>the jatropha tree may have applications in the absorption of carbon dioxide, whose sequestration is important in<span>&nbsp;</span>combating climate change.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[47]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>This small tree is very resistant to aridity so it can be planted in hot and dry land in soil unsuitable for food production. The plant does need water to grow though, so coastal areas where desalinated seawater can be made available are ideal.</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Use_in_developing_world">Use in developing world</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Currently the oil from<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>seeds<span>&nbsp;</span>is used for making<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel<span>&nbsp;</span>fuel in<span>&nbsp;</span>Philippines,<span>&nbsp;</span>Pakistan<span>&nbsp;</span>and in<span>&nbsp;</span>Brazil, where it grows naturally and in plantations in the southeast, north, and northeast of Brazil. In the<span>&nbsp;</span>Gran Chaco<span>&nbsp;</span>of<span>&nbsp;</span>Paraguay, where a native variety (<i>Jatropha matacensis</i>) also grows, studies have shown the suitability of Jatropha cultivation<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[48]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[49]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>and agro producers are starting to consider planting in the region.<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[50]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>In Africa, cultivation of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is being promoted and it is grown successfully in countries such as<span>&nbsp;</span>Mali.<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[51]</sup></p> <h4 style="color: #000000; font-size: 14px;"><span class="mw-headline" id="India">India</span></h4> <div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Further information:<span>&nbsp;</span>Jatropha biodiesel in India</div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Jatropha oil is being promoted as an easily grown biofuel crop in hundreds of projects throughout India.<sup id="cite_ref-WAC_52-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[52]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Large plantings and nurseries have been undertaken in India by many research institutions, and by women's<span>&nbsp;</span>self-help<span>&nbsp;</span>groups who use a system of<span>&nbsp;</span>microcredit<span>&nbsp;</span>to ease poverty among semiliterate Indian women. The<span>&nbsp;</span>railway line<span>&nbsp;</span>between<span>&nbsp;</span>Mumbai<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Delhi<span>&nbsp;</span>is planted with<span>&nbsp;</span><i>jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>and the train itself runs on 15–20%<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel.<sup id="cite_ref-Fairless_34-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[34]</sup></p> <h4 style="color: #000000; font-size: 14px;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Myanmar">Myanmar</span><span class="mw-editsection" style="font-size: small;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d;">[</span>edit<span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d;">]</span></span></h4> <table class="box-Unreferenced_section plainlinks metadata ambox ambox-content ambox-Unreferenced" role="presentation" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="mbox-image"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" decoding="async" width="50" height="39" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/75px-Question_book-new.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/100px-Question_book-new.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="399"></div> </td> <td class="mbox-text"> <div class="mbox-text-span">This section<span>&nbsp;</span><b>does not<span>&nbsp;</span>cite<span>&nbsp;</span>any<span>&nbsp;</span>sources</b>.<span class="hide-when-compact"><span>&nbsp;</span>Please help<span>&nbsp;</span>improve this section<span>&nbsp;</span>by<span>&nbsp;</span>adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and<span>&nbsp;</span>removed.</span><span>&nbsp;</span><span class="date-container"><i>(<span class="date">December 2016</span>)</i></span><span class="hide-when-compact"><i><span>&nbsp;</span>(Learn how and when to remove this template message)</i></span></div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Myanmar<span>&nbsp;</span>is also actively pursuing the use of jatropha oil. On 15 December 2005, then-head of state, Senior General<span>&nbsp;</span>Than Shwe, said “the States and Divisions concerned are to put 50,000 acres (200 km²) under the physic nut plants [Jatropha] each within three years totalling 700,000 acres (2,800 km²) during the period”. On the occasion of Burma’s Peasant Day 2006, Than Shwe described in his a message that “For energy sector which is an essential role in transforming industrial agriculture system, the Government is encouraging for cultivation of physic nut plants nationwide and the technical know how that can refine physic nuts to biodiesel has also identified.” He would like to urge peasants to cultivate physic nut plants on a commercial scale with major aims for emergence of industrial agriculture system, for fulfilling rural electricity supply and energy needs, for supporting rural areas development and import substitute economy. (2005 from MRTV)</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In 2006, the chief research officer at state-run<span>&nbsp;</span>Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise<span>&nbsp;</span>said Burma hoped to completely replace the country's oil imports of 40,000 barrels a day with home-brewed, jatropha-derived biofuel. Other government officials declared Burma would soon start exporting jatropha oil. Despite the military's efforts, the jatropha campaign apparently has largely flopped in its goal of making Burma self-sufficient in fuel. (2006 from MyawaddyTV)</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Z.G.S. Bioenergy has started Jatropha Plantation Projects in Northern<span>&nbsp;</span>Shan State, the company has begun planting Jatropha plants during late June 2007 and will start producing seeds by 2010. (20 July 2007 from New Light of Myanmar)</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Controversies">Controversies</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">As of 2011 scepticism about the "miracle" properties of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>has been voiced. For example: "The idea that jatropha can be grown on marginal land is a<span>&nbsp;</span>red herring", according to Harry Stourton, former business development director of UK-based Sun Biofuels, which attempted to cultivate<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>in Mozambique and Tanzania. "It does grow on marginal land, but if you use marginal land you'll get marginal yields," he said.<sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[53]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[54]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Sun Biofuels, after failing to adequately compensate local farmers for the land acquired for their plantation in Tanzania, pay workers severance, or deliver promised supplies to local villagers, went bankrupt later in 2011, the villager farmland being sold to an offshore investment fund.<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[55]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">An August 2010 article warned about the actual utility and potential dangers of reliance on<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>in Kenya. Major concerns included its invasiveness, which could disrupt local biodiversity, as well as damage to water catchment areas.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[56]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is lauded as being sustainable, and that its production would not compete with food production, but the jatropha plant needs water like every other crop to grow. This could create competition for water between the jatropha and other edible food crops. In fact, jatropha requires five times more water per unit of energy than sugarcane and corn.<sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[57]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[58]</sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Food_for_human_consumption">Food for human consumption</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Xuta</i>,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>chuta</i>,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>aishte</i><span>&nbsp;</span>or<span>&nbsp;</span><i>piñón manso</i><span>&nbsp;</span>(among others) are some of the names given in<span>&nbsp;</span>Mexico<span>&nbsp;</span>to edible non-toxic<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-Universidad_59-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[59]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-valdez2013_9-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[9]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It is grown in house gardens or other small areas.<sup id="cite_ref-Universidad_59-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[59]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Although it is known as a toxic plant due to the presence of diterpenes named phorbol esters,<sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[60]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>the existence of edible non-toxic<span>&nbsp;</span><i>J. curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>without phorbol esters content has been demonstrated.<sup id="cite_ref-valdez2013_9-2" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[9]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Osuna_61-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[61]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It is also similarly reported that<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>seeds are edible once the embryo has been removed.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[62]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The process for analysis of phorbol ester contents in<span>&nbsp;</span><i>J. curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is done through<span>&nbsp;</span>high-performance liquid chromatography<span>&nbsp;</span>(HPLC).<sup id="cite_ref-Makkar_63-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[63]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Xuta is traditionally prepared for local celebrations or popular parties. The kernels are roasted and eaten as a snack or roasted and ground to prepare different dishes, such as<span>&nbsp;</span>tamales, soups and sauces like “pipian”.<sup id="cite_ref-valdez2013_9-3" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[9]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Osuna_61-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[61]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The seeds in the zone around Misantla, Veracruz are very appreciated by the population as food once they have been boiled and roasted.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Root ashes are used as a salt substitute.<span>&nbsp;</span>HCN<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>rotenone<span>&nbsp;</span>are present.<sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[64]</sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_uses">Other uses</span></h2> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li><b>Flowers</b></li> </ul> <dl style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <dd>The species is listed as a<span>&nbsp;</span>honey<span>&nbsp;</span>plant.<span>&nbsp;</span>Hydrogen cyanide is present.<sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[65]</sup></dd> </dl> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li><b>Nuts</b></li> </ul> <dl style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <dd>Can be construed for home cooking fuel in briquette form replacing charcoalized timber as in Haiti.<sup id="cite_ref-Glenn_Brooks_Jachob_e3_66-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[66]</sup></dd> <dd>They can be burned like<span>&nbsp;</span>candlenuts<span>&nbsp;</span>when strung on grass.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2014)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>HCN<span>&nbsp;</span>is present.<sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;"></sup></dd> <dd>Used as a<span>&nbsp;</span>contraceptive<span>&nbsp;</span>in South Sudan.<sup id="cite_ref-autogenerated1_68-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[68]</sup></dd> </dl> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li><b>Seeds</b></li> </ul> <dl style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <dd>Interest exists in producing animal feed<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2014)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>from the bio-waste once the oil is expressed, as in the case with Haiti, where Jatropha curcas grows prolifically and animal feed is in very short supply.<sup id="cite_ref-Glenn_Brooks_Jachob_e3_66-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[66]</sup></dd> <dd>Similarly, Metsiyen in the Haitian culture dates back as a medicinal crop—thus the name "metsiyen"/"medsiyen". Some suggest it "calms the stomach".<sup id="cite_ref-Glenn_Brooks_Jachob_e3_66-2" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[66]</sup></dd> <dd>Also used as a contraceptive in South Sudan.<sup id="cite_ref-autogenerated1_68-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[68]</sup></dd> <dd class="">The oil has been used for illumination,<span>&nbsp;</span>soap,<span>&nbsp;</span>candles, the<span>&nbsp;</span>adulteration<span>&nbsp;</span>of<span>&nbsp;</span>olive oil, and making<span>&nbsp;</span>Turkey red oil.<span>&nbsp;</span>Turkey red oil, also called sulphonated (or sulfated) castor oil, is the only oil that completely disperses in water. It is made by adding<span>&nbsp;</span>sulfuric acid<span>&nbsp;</span>to pure<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>oil.<sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[69]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It was the first synthetic<span>&nbsp;</span>detergent<span>&nbsp;</span>after ordinary<span>&nbsp;</span>soap, as this allows easy use for making bath oil products. It is used in formulating<span>&nbsp;</span>lubricants, softeners, and<span>&nbsp;</span>dyeing assistants.</dd> </dl><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
T 92 (5 S)
Physic nut, Barbados nut Seeds (Jatropha curcas)
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Campari tomato seeds

Campari tomato seeds

Price €1.85
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5/ 5
<h2><strong>Campari tomato seeds</strong></h2> <h2 class=""><span style="color: #ff0a0a;"><strong>Price for a Package of 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <div>Campari is a type of tomato, noted for its juiciness, high sugar level, low acidity, and lack of mealiness. Camparis are deep black-red and larger than a cherry tomato, but smaller and rounder than a plum tomato. They are often sold as "tomato-on-the-vine" (TOV) in supermarkets, a category of tomato that has become increasingly popular over the years. Campari tomatoes can be produced from different varieties with similar characteristics, the standard being Mountain Magic. As a hybrid, the seeds cost around $150,000 per pound.</div> <div></div> <div>The company Mastronardi Produce registered the term "Campari" as a United States trademark for its tomatoes in 2003; however, the trademark was challenged in 2006 based on claims that "Campari" is actually the general name for the tomato variety bred in the 1990s by the Dutch company Enza Zaden.</div> <div></div> <div>Characteristics</div> <div>A typical Campari cultivar is globe-shaped, with regular leaves, and exhibits resistance to the tobacco mosaic virus. The plant grows 6–8 feet (1.8–2.4 m) and matures in 70–80 days.</div> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
VT 124 (10 S)
Campari tomato seeds
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Queen Of The Night Tomato...

Queen Of The Night Tomato...

Price €1.85
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5/ 5
<h2><strong>Queen Of The Night Tomato Seeds</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #f80000;"><strong>Price for a Package of 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> Königin der Nacht - Queen Of The Night is a recent blue variety from the Rhine area, Germany. What we know for sure is that this new variety comes from Germany from the Rhine area and further information is unknown.<br><br>The round red-orange striped fruits with very strong blue-black influences on the upper half from anthocyanin. The more the fruits are exposed to sunlight, the stronger this antioxidant (the same as blueberries) the more the fruits will turn blue/black.<br><br>Dens flesh but very juicy with a strong tomato flavor.<br><br>Medium sized indeterminate growing plants of about 1.5 m to 1.75 m with high yields reasonably early in the season, yet for a blue variety.<script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
VT 123 (10 S)
Queen Of The Night Tomato Seeds
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Dragon fire chili seeds

Dragon fire chili seeds

Price €1.95
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5/ 5
<h2><strong>Dragon fire chili seeds</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #f80000;"><strong>Price for a Package of 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> By crossing Carolina Reaper and another chili (our secret) from the Capsicum chinense family, we managed to get a stable chili variety after 4 years. Although it is a small chili in length (up to 4 cm) and weight (up to 3 g), its hotness does not lag behind the Carolina Reaper in any way. The plant is strong, approx. 150 cm high and bears a lot of fruits, up to 450 fruits can be harvested in one harvest.<br><br>Ideal chili for drying, canning, and fresh use. It is also ideal for preparing hot sauces in combination with other chili peppers.<br><br>Excellent fruity taste and aroma.<br><br>Under the color option, select the desired fruit color you want.<script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
C 60 DF Y (10S)
Dragon fire chili seeds
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Ponytail palm seeds...

Ponytail palm seeds...

Price €1.95
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5/ 5
<h2><strong>Ponytail palm seeds (Beaucarnea recurvata)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong><span style="color: #ff0000;">Price for Package of 2 seeds.</span> </strong></span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i><b>Beaucarnea recurvata</b></i>, the<span>&nbsp;</span><b>elephant's foot</b><span>&nbsp;</span>or<span>&nbsp;</span><b>ponytail palm</b>, is a<span>&nbsp;</span>species<span>&nbsp;</span>of plant in the<span>&nbsp;</span>family<span>&nbsp;</span>Asparagaceae. The species was native to numerous states of eastern<span>&nbsp;</span>Mexico<span>&nbsp;</span>but is now confined to the state of<span>&nbsp;</span>Veracruz.<sup id="cite_ref-IUCN_1-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;"></sup><sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;"></sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Despite its common name, it is not closely related to the true palms (Arecaceae). It has become popular in Europe and worldwide as an<span>&nbsp;</span>ornamental plant. There are 350-year-old Beaucarneas registered in Mexico.</p> <p>It is an<span>&nbsp;</span>evergreen<span>&nbsp;</span>perennial<span>&nbsp;</span>growing to 15&nbsp;feet 6&nbsp;inches (4.72&nbsp;m) with a noticeable expanded<span>&nbsp;</span>caudex, for storing water. The single palm-like stem produces terminal tufts of strap-shaped, recurved leathery leaves, sometimes hair lock-shaped in the ends, and with occasional<span>&nbsp;</span>panicles<span>&nbsp;</span>of small white flowers once the plant reaches over 10 years of age.</p> <p>The only moderately swollen<span>&nbsp;</span>trunk<span>&nbsp;</span>at the base is slender over it and only slightly branched. The almost spherical<span>&nbsp;</span>caudex<span>&nbsp;</span>in the youth stage later becomes 4 to 6 meters long<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[5]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>and reaches a diameter of up to 50 centimeters and more at the base. The<span>&nbsp;</span>bark<span>&nbsp;</span>is smooth. The green lineal, slightly rejuvenated and bent leaves are thin, flat or slightly ridged. They are 90 to 180 inches long and 15 to 20 millimeters wide.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Habitat">Habitat</span></h2> <p>Its habitat is low deciduous forest, with average temperatures of 20&nbsp;°C and an annual rainfall of 800&nbsp;mm, and a well-marked dry season of between 7 and 8 months. These types of forests are in an altitudinal range of 0 to 1700 meters above sea level. They grow on rocky soils deficient in nutrients, cliffs and steep mountains. The plant is resistant up to 10&nbsp;°C, and grows in full sun or partial shade. The plants are very slow growing and very tolerant to drought, in a pot or planted as an ornamental garden tree.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[6]</sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Cultivation">Cultivation</span></h2> <p>Having gained the<span>&nbsp;</span>Royal Horticultural Society's<span>&nbsp;</span>Award of Garden Merit.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[7]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span><i>B. recurvata</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is often grown as a<span>&nbsp;</span>houseplant<span>&nbsp;</span>or an outdoor plant in<span>&nbsp;</span>temperate<span>&nbsp;</span>climate gardens. Slow-growing and drought-tolerant,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Beaucarnea recurvata</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is<span>&nbsp;</span>hardy<span>&nbsp;</span>to −5&nbsp;°C (23&nbsp;°F), grows in full sun to light shade, and requires proper soil mix to drain when watered. However, be cautious not to over-water, as this will foster pests like the<span>&nbsp;</span>mealybug<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>cochineal<span>&nbsp;</span>insect. If going to be kept in places with strong winters, it must be an indoor plant as it cannot resist cold temperatures. To maintain its original shape, the ends of its leaves should not be snipped, and when repotted it must keep all of its roots.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[8]</sup></p> <p>There are 10 different species of this plant, according to the Institute of Ecology in<span>&nbsp;</span>Xalapa, state of<span>&nbsp;</span>Veracruz, which runs the<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jardín Botánico Francisco Javier Clavijero</i><span>&nbsp;</span>botanical garden, where over 400 Beaucarneas are exhibited and more are grown in greenhouses for conservation purposes, in the "Colección Nacional de Beaucarneas" (Beaucarneas National Collection).<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;"></sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="State_of_conservation">State of conservation</span></h2> <p>The species of the genus<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Beaucarnea</i><span>&nbsp;</span>are mostly in critical condition due to various anthropogenic activities, which has led to severe fragmentation and destruction of their habitat. On the other hand, the extraction of seeds, seedlings, juveniles and adults have affected the size of the population and the proportion of sexes, reducing with this the possibilities of fertilization and, consequently, the production of seeds.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[10]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>This exploitation process exposes this species, in a state of threat or extinction, by reducing the minimum viable size of the populations, as well as the deterioration of their genetic diversity.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[11]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span><i>B. recurvata</i>, is considered to be threatened according to Official Mexican Standard 059-ECOL-2010 of<span>&nbsp;</span>SEMARNAT<span>&nbsp;</span>in Mexico.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><br><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;"></sup></p> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
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<h2 class=""><strong>Spanish flag seeds (Lantana camara)</strong><br><span style="color: #f80000;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 seeds</strong></span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i><b>Lantana camara</b></i><span>&nbsp;</span>(<b>common lantana</b>) is a species of flowering plant within the<span>&nbsp;</span>verbena<span>&nbsp;</span>family (Verbenaceae), native to the American tropics.<sup id="cite_ref-florida_5-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;"></sup><sup id="cite_ref-moyhill_6-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;"></sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Other common names of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>include<span>&nbsp;</span><b>Spanish flag</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>big-sage</b><span>&nbsp;</span>(Malaysia),<span>&nbsp;</span><b>wild-sage</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>red-sage</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>white-sage</b><span>&nbsp;</span>(Caribbean),<span>&nbsp;</span><b>korsu wiri</b><span>&nbsp;</span>or<span>&nbsp;</span><b>korsoe wiwiri</b><span>&nbsp;</span>(Suriname),<span>&nbsp;</span><b>tickberry</b><span>&nbsp;</span>(South Africa),<sup id="cite_ref-Cronk_7-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[7]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span><b>West Indian lantana</b>,<sup id="cite_ref-plants_8-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[8]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span><b>umbelanterna</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>putus</b><span>&nbsp;</span>in Bengal and<span>&nbsp;</span><b>Gu Phool</b><span>&nbsp;</span>in Assam, India.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">As an ornamental,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is often cultivated indoors, or in a conservatory, but can also thrive in a garden with sufficient shelter in cooler climates.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[9]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It has spread from its native Central and South America to around 50 countries,<sup id="cite_ref-Day_10-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[10]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>where it has become an<span>&nbsp;</span>invasive species.<sup id="cite_ref-Ghisalberti2000_11-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[11]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[12]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It first spread out of the Americas when it was brought to<span>&nbsp;</span>Europe<span>&nbsp;</span>by Dutch explorers and cultivated widely, soon spreading further into<span>&nbsp;</span>Asia<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Oceania<span>&nbsp;</span>where it has established itself as a notorious weed, and in Goa it was introduced by the Portuguese.<sup id="cite_ref-Ghisalberti2000_11-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[11]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>can outcompete native species, leading to a reduction in<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiversity.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[13]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It can also cause problems if it invades agricultural areas as a result of its toxicity to<span>&nbsp;</span>livestock, as well as its ability to form dense<span>&nbsp;</span>thickets<span>&nbsp;</span>which, if left unchecked, can greatly reduce the<span>&nbsp;</span>productivity<span>&nbsp;</span>of farmland.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Description">Description</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Lantana camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is a<span>&nbsp;</span>perennial, erect sprawling or<span>&nbsp;</span>scandent, shrub which typically grows to around 2 m tall and form dense thickets in a variety of environments. In the right conditions though, it can scramble up into trees and can grow to 6 metres tall.<span>&nbsp;</span>Due to extensive selective breeding throughout the 17th and 18th Centuries for use as an ornamental plant, there are now many different<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>cultivars.<sup id="cite_ref-GISD_4-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;"><br></sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>has small tubular shaped<span>&nbsp;</span>flowers, which each have four<span>&nbsp;</span>petals<span>&nbsp;</span>and are arranged in clusters in terminal areas<span>&nbsp;</span>stems. Flowers come in many different colours, including red, yellow, white, pink and orange, which differ depending on location in inflorescences, age, and maturity.<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[17]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The flower has a<span>&nbsp;</span>tutti frutti<span>&nbsp;</span>smell with a peppery undertone. After<span>&nbsp;</span>pollination<span>&nbsp;</span>occurs, the colour of the flowers changes (typically from yellow to orangish, pinkish, or reddish); this is believed to be a signal to<span>&nbsp;</span>pollinators<span>&nbsp;</span>that the pre-change colour contains a reward as well as being sexually viable, thus increasing pollination efficiency.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[18]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The leaves are broadly ovate, opposite, and simple and have a strong odour when crushed.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[19]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The fruit of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is a berry-like drupe which turns from green to dark purple when mature. Green unripe fruits are inedible to humans and animals alike. Because of dense patches of hard spikes on their rind, ingestion of them can result in serious damage to the digestive tract. Both<span>&nbsp;</span>vegetative<span>&nbsp;</span>(asexual) and<span>&nbsp;</span>seed<span>&nbsp;</span>reproduction occur. Up to 12,000<span>&nbsp;</span>fruits<span>&nbsp;</span>can be produced by each plant<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[20]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>which are then eaten by birds and other animals which can spread the seeds over large distances, facilitating the spread of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i>.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Distribution">Distribution</span></h2> <span style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The native range of<span>&nbsp;</span></span><i style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Lantana camara</i><span style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><span>&nbsp;</span>is Central and South America; however, it has become naturalised in around 60 tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide.</span><sup id="cite_ref-feppc2_21-0" class="reference" style="color: #202122; font-size: 11.2px;">[21]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference" style="color: #202122; font-size: 11.2px;">[22]</sup><span style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><span>&nbsp;</span>It is found frequently in east and southern Africa, where it occurs at altitudes below 2000 m, and often invades previously disturbed areas such as<span>&nbsp;</span></span>logged<span style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><span>&nbsp;</span>forests and areas cleared for agriculture.</span><br> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>has also colonized areas of Africa, Southern Europe, such as Spain and Portugal, and also the Middle East, India, tropical Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and the US, as well as many Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean islands.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[24]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Thaman_25-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[25]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It has become a significant weed in Sri Lanka after escaping from the<span>&nbsp;</span>Royal Botanic gardens<span>&nbsp;</span>in 1926.<sup id="cite_ref-fao_26-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[26]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[27]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">It was introduced into the Philippines from Hawaii as part of an exchange program between the United States and the Philippines; however, it managed to escape and has become naturalized in the islands.<sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[28]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It has also been introduced to the whole southern US, from<span>&nbsp;</span>California<span>&nbsp;</span>to<span>&nbsp;</span>North Carolina,<sup id="cite_ref-plants.usda.gov_29-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[29]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>and is considered hardy in USDA zones 10 and 11.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[30]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The range of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is still increasing, shown by the fact that it has invaded many islands on which it was not present in 1974, including the<span>&nbsp;</span>Galapagos Islands,<span>&nbsp;</span>Saipan<span>&nbsp;</span>and the<span>&nbsp;</span>Solomon Islands.<sup id="cite_ref-Thaman_25-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[25]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>There is also evidence that<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is still increasing its range in areas where it has been established for many years, such as East Africa, Australia and New Zealand.<sup id="cite_ref-Day_10-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[10]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The ability of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>to rapidly colonise areas of land which have been disturbed has allowed it to proliferate in countries where activities such as logging, clearance for agriculture and<span>&nbsp;</span>forest fires<span>&nbsp;</span>are common. In contrast, in countries with large areas of intact primary forest, the distribution of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>has been limited.</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Habitat">Habitat</span></h3> <div class="thumb tright" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <div class="thumbinner" style="font-size: 13.16px;"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Lantana_camara-Silent_Valley-2016-08-14-001.jpg/220px-Lantana_camara-Silent_Valley-2016-08-14-001.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Lantana_camara-Silent_Valley-2016-08-14-001.jpg/330px-Lantana_camara-Silent_Valley-2016-08-14-001.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Lantana_camara-Silent_Valley-2016-08-14-001.jpg/440px-Lantana_camara-Silent_Valley-2016-08-14-001.jpg 2x" data-file-width="6000" data-file-height="4000"> <div class="thumbcaption" style="font-size: 12.3704px;"> <div class="magnify"></div> <i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>in<span>&nbsp;</span>Silent Valley National Park,<span>&nbsp;</span>Kerala,<span>&nbsp;</span>India</div> </div> </div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Lantana camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is found in a variety of environments, including:</p> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li>Agricultural areas</li> <li>Forest margins and gaps</li> <li>Riparian<span>&nbsp;</span>zones</li> <li>Grasslands</li> <li>Secondary forest, and</li> <li>Beach fronts.</li> </ul> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is rarely found in natural or semi-natural areas of forest, as it is unable to compete with taller trees due to its lack of tolerance for shade. Instead, it grows at the forest edge.<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>can survive in a wide range of climatic conditions, including<span>&nbsp;</span>drought, different soil types, heat, humidity, and salt. It is also relatively fired tolerant and can quickly establish itself in recently burnt areas of forest.</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Invasive_species">Invasive species</span></h3> <div class="thumb tright" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <div class="thumbinner" style="font-size: 13.16px;"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/Lantana_camara_tree.jpg/220px-Lantana_camara_tree.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="316" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/Lantana_camara_tree.jpg/330px-Lantana_camara_tree.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/Lantana_camara_tree.jpg/440px-Lantana_camara_tree.jpg 2x" data-file-width="891" data-file-height="1279"> <div class="thumbcaption" style="font-size: 12.3704px;"> <div class="magnify"></div> 6 metre tall<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>shrubs infesting a native woodland area in<span>&nbsp;</span>Sydney.</div> </div> </div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is considered to be a weed in large areas of the<span>&nbsp;</span>Paleotropics<span>&nbsp;</span>where it has established itself. In agricultural areas or secondary forests it can become the dominant understorey shrub, crowding out other native species and reducing biodiversity.<sup id="cite_ref-Cronk_7-2" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[7]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The formation of dense thickets of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>can significantly slow down the regeneration of forests by preventing the growth of new trees.<sup id="cite_ref-GISD_4-2" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[4]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In the US,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is considered invasive in tropical areas such as<span>&nbsp;</span>Florida<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Hawaii.<sup id="cite_ref-plants.usda.gov_29-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[29]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Although<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is itself quite resistant to fire, it can change fire patterns in a forest<span>&nbsp;</span>ecosystem<span>&nbsp;</span>by altering the fuel load, causing a buildup of forest fuel, which itself increases the risk of fires spreading to the<span>&nbsp;</span>canopy.<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[33]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>This can be particularly destructive in dry, arid areas where fire can spread quickly and lead to the loss of large areas of natural ecosystem.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>reduces the productivity in pasture through the formation of dense thickets, which reduce growth of crops as well as make harvesting more difficult. There are also secondary impacts, including the finding that in Africa,<span>&nbsp;</span>mosquitos<span>&nbsp;</span>which transmit<span>&nbsp;</span>malaria<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>tsetse<span>&nbsp;</span>flies shelter within the bushes of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[34]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Even though<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is considered invasive to the<span>&nbsp;</span>Western Ghats, the plant does not seem to impact biodiversity in the region; rather it tends to simply occupy the same moist regions as other species.<sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[35]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">There are many reasons why<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>has been so successful as an invasive species; however, the primary factors which have allowed it to establish itself are:</p> <ol style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li>Wide dispersal range made possible by birds and other animals that eat its drupes</li> <li>Less prone to being eaten by animals due to toxicity</li> <li>Tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions<sup id="cite_ref-Cronk_7-3" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[7]</sup></li> <li>Increase in logging and habitat modification, which has been beneficial to<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>as it prefers disturbed habitats</li> <li>Production of toxic chemicals which inhibit competing plant species</li> <li>Extremely high seed production (12,000 seeds from each plant per year)<sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[36]</sup></li> </ol> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Toxicity">Toxicity</span></h3> <div class="thumb tleft" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <div class="thumbinner" style="font-size: 13.16px;"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Lantana_camara_%2855%29.jpg/220px-Lantana_camara_%2855%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Lantana_camara_%2855%29.jpg/330px-Lantana_camara_%2855%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Lantana_camara_%2855%29.jpg/440px-Lantana_camara_%2855%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="600" data-file-height="399"> <div class="thumbcaption" style="font-size: 12.3704px;"> <div class="magnify"></div> <i>L. camara</i></div> </div> </div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Lantana camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is known to be toxic to livestock such as cattle, sheep, horses, dogs and goats.<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[37]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[38]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The active substances causing toxicity in grazing animals are<span>&nbsp;</span>pentacyclic<span>&nbsp;</span>triterpenoids, which result in liver damage and photosensitivity.<sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[39]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>also excretes<span>&nbsp;</span>allelopathic<span>&nbsp;</span>chemicals, which reduce the growth of surrounding plants by inhibiting<span>&nbsp;</span>germination<span>&nbsp;</span>and root elongation.<sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[40]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The toxicity of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>to humans is undetermined, with several studies suggesting that ingesting berries can be toxic to humans, such as a study by O P Sharma which states "Green unripe fruits of the plant are toxic to humans".<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[41]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>NC State's Extension Gardener website states that ingestion of the flowers, fruits, and leaves can cause vomiting, diarrhea, difficulty breathing, and liver failure, while the leaves can cause contact dermatitis.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[42]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>However, other studies have found evidence which suggests that<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>fruit poses no risk to humans when eaten, and is in fact edible when ripe.<sup id="cite_ref-43" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[43]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[44]</sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Management_and_control">Management and control</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <div class="thumbinner" style="font-size: 13.16px;"><img alt="Butterfly feeding on Lantana camara" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e2/Graphium_sarpedon_WQXGA.jpg/220px-Graphium_sarpedon_WQXGA.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="138" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e2/Graphium_sarpedon_WQXGA.jpg/330px-Graphium_sarpedon_WQXGA.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e2/Graphium_sarpedon_WQXGA.jpg/440px-Graphium_sarpedon_WQXGA.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2560" data-file-height="1600"> <div class="thumbcaption" style="font-size: 12.3704px;"> <div class="magnify"></div> Butterfly feeding on<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i></div> </div> </div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Effective management of invasive<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>in the long term will require a reduction in activities that create degraded habitats. Maintaining functioning (healthy) ecosystems is key to preventing invasive species from establishing themselves and out-competing native<span>&nbsp;</span>fauna<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>flora.</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Biological">Biological</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Insects and other<span>&nbsp;</span>biocontrol<span>&nbsp;</span>agents have been implemented with varying degrees of success in an attempt to control<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i>. It was the first weed ever subjected to biological control; however, none of the programs have been successful despite 36 control agents being used across 33 regions.<sup id="cite_ref-Management_Information_45-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[45]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The lack of success using biological control in this case is most likely due to the many<span>&nbsp;</span>hybrid<span>&nbsp;</span>forms of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i>, as well as its large<span>&nbsp;</span>genetic diversity<span>&nbsp;</span>which makes it difficult for the control agents to target all plants effectively. A recent study in India has shown some results around biological control of this plant using tingid bugs.<sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[46]</sup></p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Mechanical">Mechanical</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Mechanical control of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>involves physically removing the plants. Physical removal can be effective but is labor-intensive and expensive,<span>&nbsp;</span>therefore removal is usually only appropriate in small areas or at the early stages of an infestation. Another method of mechanical control is to use fire treatment, followed by revegetation with native species.</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Chemical">Chemical</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Using herbicides to manage<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is very effective but also expensive, prohibiting its use in many poorer countries where<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is well established. The most effective way of chemically treating plant species is to first mow the area, then spray the area with a<span>&nbsp;</span>weed-killer, although this may have serious environmental consequences.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Uses">Uses</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <div class="thumbinner" style="font-size: 13.16px;"><img alt="Butterfly resting on L. camara" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Butterfly_on_Lantana_-_Flickr_-_Andrea_Westmoreland.jpg/220px-Butterfly_on_Lantana_-_Flickr_-_Andrea_Westmoreland.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="156" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Butterfly_on_Lantana_-_Flickr_-_Andrea_Westmoreland.jpg/330px-Butterfly_on_Lantana_-_Flickr_-_Andrea_Westmoreland.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Butterfly_on_Lantana_-_Flickr_-_Andrea_Westmoreland.jpg/440px-Butterfly_on_Lantana_-_Flickr_-_Andrea_Westmoreland.jpg 2x" data-file-width="5098" data-file-height="3618"> <div class="thumbcaption" style="font-size: 12.3704px;"> <div class="magnify"></div> Butterfly resting on<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i></div> </div> </div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Lantana camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>stalks have been used in the construction of furniture, such as chairs and tables;<span>&nbsp;</span>however, the main uses have historically been medicinal and ornamental.</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Medicinal_value">Medicinal value</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Studies conducted in India have found that<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Lantana</i><span>&nbsp;</span>leaves can display<span>&nbsp;</span>antimicrobial,<span>&nbsp;</span>fungicidal,<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>insecticidal<span>&nbsp;</span>properties.<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>has also been used in traditional herbal medicines for treating a variety of ailments, including<span>&nbsp;</span>cancer, skin itches,<span>&nbsp;</span>leprosy,<span>&nbsp;</span>chickenpox,<span>&nbsp;</span>measles,<span>&nbsp;</span>asthma,<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>ulcers.<sup id="cite_ref-GISD_4-4" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[4]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>extract has been shown to reduce gastric<span>&nbsp;</span>ulcer<span>&nbsp;</span>development in rats.<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[49]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Extracts from the plant have also been used in Brazil to treat respiratory infections.<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[50]</sup></p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Ornamental">Ornamental</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Lantana camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>has been grown specifically for use as an ornamental plant since Dutch explorers first brought it to Europe from the New World.<sup id="cite_ref-GISD_4-5" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[4]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Its ability to last for a relatively long time without water, and the fact that it does not have many pests or diseases which affect it, have contributed to it becoming a common ornamental plant.<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>also attracts butterflies and birds and is frequently used in butterfly gardens.<sup id="cite_ref-florida_5-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[5]</sup></p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="As_a_host-plant">As a host-plant</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Many butterfly species feed on the nectar of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara.</i><span>&nbsp;</span><i>Papilio homerus</i>, the largest butterfly in the western hemisphere, is known to feed on the nectar of the flowers as an opportunistic flower feeder.<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[51]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>A jumping spider<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Evarcha culicivora</i><span>&nbsp;</span>has an association with<span>&nbsp;</span><i>L. camara</i>. They consume the nectar for food and preferentially use these plants as a location for courtship.<sup id="cite_ref-:2_52-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[52]</sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Etymology">Etymology</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The name<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Lantana</i><span>&nbsp;</span>derives from the<span>&nbsp;</span>Latin<span>&nbsp;</span>name of the wayfaring tree<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Viburnum lantana</i>, the flowers of which closely resemble<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Lantana</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-Ghisalberti2000_11-2" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[11]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-gledhill_53-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[53]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Camara</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is derived from<span>&nbsp;</span>Greek, meaning ‘arched’, ‘chambered’, or ‘vaulted’.</p> <br> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
MHS 59 (10 S)
Spanish flag seeds (Lantana camara)
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Eagle Heart Siberian Tomato...

Eagle Heart Siberian Tomato...

Price €1.65
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Eagle Heart Siberian Tomato Seeds</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #f80000;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> Eagle Heart Siberian Tomato is a uniquely colored oxheart that is a sight to see.<br>Mid-season, high-yielding, large-fruited grade of amateur selection. 300g tomato fruits of the beautiful extended heart-shaped form, a pink and crimson color, with gentle sweet pulp. This is a very meaty and smooth tomato that is sweet and delicious.&nbsp;<br><br>Dense, not watery, steady against cracking. The plant is powerful, very resistant to diseases and adverse weather conditions. It is suitable for open fields and greenhouses.<br>80 Days.<script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
VT 80 (10)
Eagle Heart Siberian Tomato Seeds
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100 Seeds Habanero Yellow

100 Seeds Habanero Yellow

Price €5.95
,
5/ 5
<h2 class=""><strong>100 Seeds Habanero Yellow (Capsicum chinense)</strong></h2> <h2><strong><span style="color: #ff0000;">Price for Package of 100 seeds.</span></strong></h2> <div>The habanero is a variety of chili pepper. Unripe habaneros are green, and they color as they mature. The most common color variants are orange and red, but the fruit may also be white, brown, yellow, green, or purple. Typically, a ripe habanero chili is 2–6 cm (0.8–2.4 in) long. Habanero chilis are very hot, rated 100,000–650,000 on the Scoville scale. The habanero's heat, its flavor, and its floral aroma have made it a popular ingredient in hot sauces and spicy foods.<br><br>The name indicates something or someone from La Habana (Havana). In English, it is sometimes spelled and pronounced habañero, the tilde being added as a hyperforeignism patterned after jalapeño.<br><br><strong>Origin and current use</strong><br>The habanero chili comes from the Amazon, from which it was spread, reaching Mexico. A specimen of a domesticated habanero plant, dated at 8,500 years old, was found at an archaeological site in Peru.[citation needed] An intact fruit of a small domesticated habanero, found in pre-ceramic levels in Guitarrero Cave in the Peruvian highlands, was dated to 6500 BC.<br><br>The habanero chili was disseminated by Spanish colonists to other areas of the world, to the point that 18th-century taxonomists mistook China for its place of origin and called it Capsicum chinense ("the Chinese pepper").<br><br>Today, the largest producer is the Yucatán Peninsula, in Mexico. Habaneros are an integral part of Yucatecan food, accompanying most dishes, either in natural form or purée or salsa. Other modern producers include Belize, Panama, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, and parts of the United States, including Texas, Idaho, and California.<br><br>The Scotch bonnet is often compared to the habanero, since they are two varieties of the same species, but they have different pod types. Both the Scotch bonnet and the habanero have thin, waxy flesh. They have a similar heat level and flavor. Both varieties average around the same level of pungency, but the actual degree varies greatly from one fruit to another according to genetics, growing methods, climate, and plant stress.<br><br>In 1999, the habanero was listed by Guinness World Records as the world's hottest chili, but it has since been displaced by other peppers. The Bhut jolokia (or ghost pepper) and Trinidad moruga scorpion have since been identified as native Capsicum chinense subspecies even hotter than the habanero. Breeders constantly crossbreed subspecies to attempt to create cultivars that will break the record on the Scoville scale. One example is the Carolina Reaper, a cross between a Bhut jolokia pepper with a particularly pungent red habanero.<br><br><strong>Cultivation</strong><br>Habaneros thrive in hot weather. Like all peppers, the habanero does well in an area with good morning sun and in soil with a pH level around 5 to 6 (slightly acidic). Habaneros which are watered daily produce more vegetative growth but the same number of fruit, with lower concentrations of capsaicin, as compared to plants which are watered only when dry (every seven days). Overly moist soil and roots will produce bitter-tasting peppers. Daily watering during flowering and early setting of fruit helps prevent flower and immature fruit from dropping, but flower dropping rates are reported to often reach 90% even in ideal conditions.<br><br>The habanero is a perennial flowering plant, meaning that with proper care and growing conditions, it can produce flowers (and thus fruit) for many years. Habanero bushes are good candidates for a container garden. In temperate climates, though, it is treated as an annual, dying each winter and being replaced the next spring. In tropical and subtropical regions, the habanero, like other chiles, will produce year round. As long as conditions are favorable, the plant will set fruit continuously.<br><br><strong>Cultivars</strong><br>Several growers have attempted to selectively breed habanero plants to produce hotter, heavier, and larger peppers. Most habaneros rate between 200,000 and 300,000 on the Scoville scale. In 2004, researchers in Texas created a mild version of the habanero, but retained the traditional aroma and flavor. The milder version was obtained by crossing the Yucatán habanero pepper with a heatless habanero from Bolivia over several generations.</div> <div></div> <div>Black habanero is an alternative name often used to describe the dark brown variety of habanero chilis (although they are slightly different, being slightly smaller and slightly more sphere-shaped). Some seeds have been found which are thought to be over 7,000 years old. The black habanero has an exotic and unusual taste, and is hotter than a regular habanero with a rating between 400,000 and 450,000 Scoville units. Small slivers used in cooking can have a dramatic effect on the overall dish. Black habaneros take considerably longer to grow than other habanero chili varieties. In a dried form, they can be preserved for long periods of time, and can be reconstituted in water then added to sauce mixes. Previously known as habanero negro, or by their Nahuatl name, their name was translated into English by spice traders in the 19th century as "black habanero". The word "chocolate" was derived from the Nahuatl word, xocolātl [ʃoˈkolaːt͡ɬ], and was used in the description, as well (as "chocolate habanero"), but it proved to be unpronounceable to the British traders, so it was simply named "black habanero".<br><br>A 'Caribbean Red,' a cultivar within the habanero family, has a citrusy and slightly smoky flavor, with a Scoville rating ranging from 300,000 to 445,000 Scoville units.</div> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
C 19 Y (100 S)
100 Seeds Habanero Yellow
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Bianca di Maggio Onion Seeds

Bianca di Maggio Onion Seeds

Price €1.95
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Bianca di Maggio Onion Seeds</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #f80000;"><strong>Price for Package of 250 (1 g) seeds.</strong></span></h2> This antique Italian classic variety has flattened disk-shaped bulbs with a mild sweet flavor. this white onion is very sweet and mild, used in Italy for pickling, roasting, grilling, and salads. It has a storage life of up to three months.&nbsp;<br><br>These delicious, white onions command a high price at specialty markets.<script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
VE 228
Bianca di Maggio Onion Seeds
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Giant F1 bell pepper seeds

Giant F1 bell pepper seeds

Price €2.05
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Giant F1 bell pepper seeds</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #f80000;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> A hybrid type of bell pepper, the fruits are sweet, dark green in color, weighing up to 450 grams. In the mature stage, the fruits are dark red. Peppers are equally suitable for growing in the open field and in greenhouses. It gives extremely high yields and the fruits can be picked well when they are green and red.<br><strong>Extremely disease-resistant!</strong><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
VE 227 (10 S)
Giant F1 bell pepper seeds
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Red poppy Seeds (Papaver...

Red poppy Seeds (Papaver...

Price €2.05
,
5/ 5
<div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2 class=""><strong>Red poppy Seeds (Papaver rhoeas)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #f80000;"><strong>Price for Package of 2000 seeds (0,5g).</strong></span></h2> <p>Papaver rhoeas, with common names including common poppy, corn poppy, corn rose, field poppy, Flanders poppy, and red poppy is an annual herbaceous species of flowering plant in the poppy family Papaveraceae. It is notable as an agricultural weed (hence the common names including "corn" and "field"). Especially in the UK, it is used as a symbol of remembrance of the fallen soldiers and another military, during World War I and thereafter.<br><br>Papaver rhoeas is a variable, erect annual, forming a long-lived soil seed bank that can germinate when the soil is disturbed. In the northern hemisphere it generally flowers in late spring (between May and October in the UK) but if the weather is warm enough other flowers frequently appear at the beginning of autumn. It grows up to about 70 cm (28 in) in height. The stems hold single flowers, which are large and showy, 5–10 cm (2–4 in) across, with four petals that are vivid red, most commonly with a black spot at their base. The petals slightly overlap each other. The plant can produce up to 400 flowers in a warm season, that last only one day. The flower stem is usually covered with coarse hairs that are held at right angles to the surface, helping to distinguish it from Papaver dubium in which the hairs are more usually appressed (i.e. held close to the stem). The capsules are hairless, obovoid (egg-shaped), less than twice as tall as they are wide, with a stigma at least as wide as the capsule. Like many other species of Papaver, the plant exudes white to yellowish latex when the tissues are broken.<br><br>Not all corn poppies that are available commercially have red flowers. Selective breeding has resulted in cultivars in yellow, orange, pink, and white. The Shirley poppy is a well known cultivar. A very pale speckled variety, derived from the Shirley, is also available.<br><br>A nearly black-flowering hybrid, known as 'Evelina', was bred in Italy in the late 1990s, with P. dubium, but does not appear to be available commercially.<br><br><strong>Phytochemistry</strong><br><br>Papaver rhoeas contains the alkaloid called rhoeadine, which is a mild sedative. Rhoeadic acid, papaveric acid and rhoeagenine are also found in this plant.<br><br><strong>Uses</strong><br><br>The commonly grown garden decorative Shirley poppy is a cultivar of this plant.<br><br>The black seeds are edible and can be eaten either on their own or as an ingredient in bread. Oil made from the seed is highly regarded in France.<br><br>The petals contain a red dye which is used in some medicines and wines; also the dried petals are occasionally used to give colour to potpourris.<br><br>In traditional folk medicine, it was used for gout, aches, and pains. The petals were used to create a syrup that was fed to children to help them sleep.</p> </div> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
MHS 43 PR
Red poppy Seeds (Papaver rhoeas)
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SURURUCA Seeds (Passiflora...

SURURUCA Seeds (Passiflora...

Price €3.00
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5/ 5
<h2><strong>SURURUCA Seeds (Passiflora setacea)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 3 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p class="">Sururuca is a climbing plant with a perennial rootstock. It produces annually to perennial stems that scramble over the ground or clamber into other plants, supporting themselves by means of tendrils<br><br>The edible fruits are greatly appreciated in the plant's native range, where they are gathered from the wild.<br><br>This passion flower from southern central Brazil is found in thickets and riverine forests. It sports lobed leaves and beautiful white flowers followed by juicy, edible fruits 8 cm (orange pulp) with an excellent, mildly acidic taste.<br><br>Native to Bahia, Mato Grosso and surrounding areas of Brazil.</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 18 PCX
SURURUCA Seeds (Passiflora setacea)
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